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BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY BULLETIN 63

ANALYTICAL AND CRITICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE TRIBES OF TIERRA DEL FUEGO AND ADJACENT TERRITORY

BY

JOHN M. COOPER

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WASHINGTON GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1917

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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

WasuinetTon, D. C., October 10, 1916. Str: I have the honor to transmit herewith the manuscript of a memoir entitled ‘Analytical and Critical Bibliography of the Tribes of Tierra del Fuego and Adjacent Territory,” by Rev. John M. Cooper, and to recommend its publication as a bulletin of the Bureau of American Ethnology. Very respectfully, F. W. Hoper, Ethnologist-in- Charge. Dr. CHartes D. Watcott, Secretary, Smithsonian Institution.

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PREFACE

If we are entitled to accept the principle that the modern barbarian world has preserved to a fair degree the culture of humanity’s ado- lescence, we may legitimately go a step farther and look to the modern savage world for some clue to the culture of humanity’s childhood. Used with due reserve, our knowledge of savage culture may help toward a reconstruction of the earlier stages of prehistoric cultural development, but at any rate codrdination of the facts must precede their interpretation, and in turn be preceded by intensive studies of the individual savage tribes.

The present work had its origin in such an attempt to find what light an intensive study of the available sources would throw on the culture, particularly the religion and morality, and on the cultural relations, of one of the most primitive aborigmal American groups. In the course of preparation references accumulated, and what began as a cultural study has ended as a bibliography.

I wish to take this opportunity to express my grateful apprecia- tion first of all to Mr. Frederick W. Hodge, who has given me his valued counsel on many matters connected with the work. JI am also indebted to him as well as to Mr. Wilberforce Eames for several important titles.

Dr. Ales Hrdli¢ka and Dr. John R. Swanton have generously given me the benefit of their expert knowledge and wide experience in their respective fields, although of course I should not like them to be held responsible for conclusions advanced in the work.

- Prof. Charles Wellington Furlong, whose intimate personal knowl- edge of the Fuegian and Patagonian tribes makes him our foremost North American authority on their culture, has very kindly put at my disposal much of his invaluable manuscript material and has given me information on many obscure points.

The Rey. Dr. Antonio Cojazzi and Father José M. Beauvoir, both of the Salesian Society, have by letter helped to clear up for me sev- eral matters in connection with their own and their confréres’ lin- guistic studies.

I have to thank Mr. Charles Martel, of the Library of Congress, for many kindnesses to me and for his valuable suggestions regarding biblhographical technique.

VI PREFACE

I am also under deep obligation for many privileges extended to me and for their unfailing courtesy in the many demands I made on their time and patience, to Mr. Charles W. Mead, of the American Museum of Natural History, and to the authorities of many of the libraries of Washington and elsewhere, especially of the Library of Congress, of the libraries of the Bureau of American Ethnology, the National Museum, the Surgeon General’s Office, the Geological Survey, and the Pan-American Union, of the Day Missions Library of Yale, and of the New York Public Library.

Joun M. Cooper.

Wasuineton, D. C., September 11, 1916. :

CONTENTS

[iat rpaye ROSH ELOY she chores RO eee aes a A BE eg ge

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Pastandsirture ol Puecian Investigations: 20.2325... 552225-0--- 2222 - e525 8

Barly«wattersiand explorers to 1800.28. s.22-2-2 222. 2.-21- 282 2c7 sae eee ipanyG mime tariONie ssc seen nee oS Ooh yh beet eS Sto oe asks Sy Future of Fuegian and Chonoan investigation ne Be erecta temas Bde kere

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VIII CONTENTS

Subject bibliography—Continued. Caltare, < 2 jcc 850.23 15s Ace ee ee ee ee eee es. 2a Religious cultures... 2:2) = 244s ee oe eee ee es << 5 = Rehpious' culture propers. aes ee | eee eee es ee Supramundane beings a2. 2 Spee eas ere Totemism, animisni, fetishisme S62 52-2202 222. - « Lara Ancestor worship: f ..23 2a ee eee | Bee. Se Future life: ... <.ci?o > Satine eee ee art ae ee ee Belieland morality. 2244.22 seg ee Sa de OUlb soe hee ceed oct Se eee ee en ee are Quasi-religious culture’... 2020. 2222... seg eee ee Birth:eustoms. 2.2 f5.¢: 2-5: sd.0 sce eee eee ImMitiaiivonsaes eeoeetoe cee oe bps s Soot =o jee eee TADOOSS- AEE Ae oe ec ee aed peta eee) eee Dress | 2 hoc coats Jaa sane ek eek Oe ee VanlOusr CUSTOMS] ay fee cas ok Ae cee yet

Death, moumine, andburialisis.- 2 oka et See Mythology, tolk tales, and traditions: 20>. 2.2 -Seyeaat th < ee: Domestic cultures. oo c.cSe sos de eos gee eben Se ie er ee Courtship and choice of wiles 22-22-52 '-Gcinck hog Jonah oe See he yutae ly cet hehe oe hota Guess Pe ke Coho Cee eee ee UNGGEE AN Hers, A eee cha se tance ee ope he eae Be cee os ee Hndopamy and:exogamy 522 2.50s< 225.55 o ea. gees See Monogamy polysamy, polyandry. 22.22.2222 6: be eee eee Diworee. 22a Soa Sia. teh ses sae Baan ee ae Conjugal fideluiyy. 2: 5; $05 ec H i eds Ses te ie ee Position -offwomiain: 2 Sonc2 2200s aes ee eo res ce ee a Deysion OLIADOT sae foe fee ene eee ee ea Modestyinc2 22 cnn s Soe ae see ea ote al ee eee Premarital chastity: 3 - <<: sogasate. esc daa bic aa ee Care Chaced cso Soke tits oe eo osm See te ot Gare OFGuG GING Soc ccc ss cisee came co So ore ah erate ee ee

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149 150 150 152 152 154 155 156 157 158 158 159 159 160 162 164 164 165 165 165 166 167 167 168 169 169 169 170 170 aA Al 172 172

CONTENTS it a

Subject bibliography—Continued.

Culture—Continued. Page HB OD S20 SE COUPEE ea tele eh =n a 184 Wipren 5) Guhl 2205 Ae Se een eee | ae 185

LCT a4 Sk yk a el) a ae ee or 185 Apricilipre and domestication ).8-4.. 70.2 52.) 224.28. 22. 2: 185 DLO 10 200) W700) 0 (ea Tal a <r 187 LDA SS Ee SO Mae ae See ye Oe SP eae ee a ee 187 Peindsiof fo0ds2 24.2539 ey a es EE Se See ws 187 Ree) eal La ee ars, Sw ee eee os EE ee aS Aa A 191 TRE Sg C00 SLU og eR Meas Sc array We ee ei A 2 ey 191

iS ie liters ee eer pee eee ete aN SE boa easiest 5 Sys 192

Clot hiniaeces se eee eee omen Pewee OD Soc. vie Geese 193

DS GIFISSTIIT CUD dle 2 EN eo rs ees are oe 195

Mexaileranad ticilesprod cts: so. ces: see - 2 Sees toss. os Sok anne 2s 204

VS BOSSE) oa ae ABO aes Sa ry cs SORTER, eee ates ee 205

LAGOS BS atid mel 4 hae eae ye tet ch ade tage Ae cee (Onna a 216

AGUINEC. GENES BAS cs ORGS OO er, AO RT REE a pe 218 Page OMS eet | anes ee Se ea sie a Se ayes Nateyate pin SM eLawas Dt oes 219

TEYE/ Sn SIS on tet A ae ee a a ee eee ee ee ee 220 DOM EEA ALI eee Re ey ea Ney eh lao es De Son wae atts sao Z 220 Torpnmriive South American’ peoples. 2-52. 2.22i. 202... 022.202. 22 (Lomumercummcetmacnena sear) 27. 22 sees ee eel oe sai 223 Manind 0-Oceaniciprimdave peoples... 52-25 2-142 28. Ho dese oes 223

TDC NOSeCUPSTOT OF | S101 Sie aan eM ep gee Are 229 ILLUSTRATION

Prate 1. Map of the southern extreme of South America .......-.-- Facing page 64

ANALYTICAL AND CRITICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE TRIBES OF TIERRA DEL FUEGO AND ADJACENT TERRITORY

By Jonn M. Cooper

INTRODUCTION ScoPpE OF THE PRESENT WorRK

The present paper is intended as a practical or working guide to the sources for Fuegian and Chonoan anthropology. With this end in view, the writer has endeavored, first, to gather together, analyze, and evaluate the extant written sources; secondly, to draw up lists of references covering the various phases of anthropology; and, thirdly, to sift the available material for all evidence that might help toward clearing up obscure or debated points.

The work is divided into three parts: The Introduction, the Bibli- ography of Authors, and the Bibliography of Subjects.

The Introduction treats of the names, divisions, territories, and present conditions of the Fuegian and Chonoan Indians, and gives a. short history of investigation with a summary of what has been accomplished and of what still remains to be done. The perplexing problem of the relations of the Alacaluf of the Strait of Magellan to the Chonos and natives of the West Patagonian Channels has called for somewhat extensive treatment.

The Author Bibliography aims to give an analysis and critical appreciation of each book and article, briefly or more at length in proportion to the importance of the work from the standpoint of the anthropologist. Nearly all second-hand works, and even most of the first-hand sources, demanded only short annotations; for, while the list of those who have written of the. Fuegians and Chonos from per- sonal observation is a comparatively long one, extending through nearly four centuries, the great majority of these explorers have had at the most merely a few hours of contact with the natives. Their descriptions are nearly always exact, and often valuable for the more obvious phases of material culture, but in most other respects have to be used with caution.

]

bo

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL, 63

The bibliographies of somatology and linguistics are designed to be as exhaustive as possible; those dealing with culture are selective and are cast in the form of cultural outlines with emphasis on the biblio- graphical side.

Throughout the present work the term Anthropology is used in the broadest sense to include everything relating to the natives directly. The terms Somatology and Culture are employed for physical and cultural anthropology, respectively. Language would logically be included under culture, but for practical purposes the liberty has been taken of classifying it as the third subdivision of general an- thropology.

GENERAL Division oF TRIBES

The Fuegian Archipelago is inhabited by three distinct tribes, the Yahgans of the south, the Alacaluf of the west, and the Onas of the east. The first two spend the greater part of their time on the water, whence their common name ‘‘Canoe Indians,” while the natives of the third tribe have neither canoes nor horses, and are known as ‘‘Foot Indians.” The three languages are, lexically at least, distinct, but the physical and cultural differences are in the main less marked between the Yahgans and Alacaluf than between these two tribes on the one hand and the Onas on the other. Of the Haush or Manekenkn subtribe and of the ‘‘West Patagonian Canoe Indians”? more will be said below.

The Chonos occupied the archipelagos between the Guaitecas Islands and the Taitao Peninsula or the Gulf of Pefias. Somato- logically and culturally they resembled their more southerly neigh- bors, the Canoe Indians. Whether or not they spoke a language distinct from the Alacalufan can not be decided in the present state of our knowledge.

YAHGANS NAMES

The most southerly of the Fuegians, and also the most southerly people of the world, are the Yahgans. The name is variously spelt Yagan, Yakan, Yaghan, etc., but should not be confused with the entirely distinct Yacana, Yacana-cunnee. The name Yahgan was given these Indians by the Rev. Thomas Bridges, from Yahga, their native name for the Murray Narrows district, a locality much fre- quented by them (Th. Bridges, 6, Apr. 1, 1880, 74; h, 207.) They call themselves Yamana, that is, ‘‘living,’’ ‘‘alive’’ (Th. Bridges, h, 207), or ‘‘men”’ (Th. Bridges, ll. e; Hyades, g, 14; Bove, a, 790; b, 132; c, 125; d, Arch., 288; Cojazzi, 15; Dabbene, b, 170; Lehmann- Nitsche, d, 230-231; Furlong, j; 6, 126; Outes, d, 136).1 Some of the

1The small (lower ease italic) letters denote the corresponding article or book under the author’s name in the Author Bibliography. The numbers, of course, refer to the pages. Where under the same letter in the bibliography two or more editions or translations are given, the page cited is from the first one entered thereunder, unless otherwise expressly stated.

COOPER ] BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TRIBES OF TIERRA DEL FUEGO a

earlier nineteenth century explorers dubbed them, from the word constantly on their lips, Yammascoonas, which means ‘‘be generous’’ (Garbe, 362; Hyades, g, 314; Martial, 30; Noguera). Admiral Fitz- Roy called one section of them by mistake Tekeenicas (a, 137), from teckianaca, ‘not seen before, strange’ (Th. Bridges, h, 207; Lovisato, c, 721; Dabbene, b, 169), or Tac-cy-yennica-owena, ‘stranger men’ (Despard, 6, 746, 717). Cf. also discussion of origin of this name in Lovisato, c, 721; Martial, 209; Hyades, g, 282; Th. Bridges and Despard, Il. ¢.

The Alacaluf captured and taken aboard by Admiral Fitz-Roy called the Yahgans, Yapoos (Fitz-Roy, a, 203; King, 428), from the Yahgan word aiapuk, ‘otter’ (Th. Bridges, h, 207; Despard, b, 717).

TERRITORY

In the last century and probably from much earlier times the Yahgans occupied the shores of Beagle Channel and the islands south to Cape Horn. To the east they extended to the eastern end of Beagle Channel, and at times at least cruised nearly to the Straits of Lemaire (de Brosses, 1, 208). To the west they reached as far as the western end of Beagle Channel, and, on Tierra del Fuego Island’s shores and some of the islands to the southwest, even to Brecknock Peninsula (Th. Bridges, 6, Oct. 1, 1884, 224). This latter point was in a broad sense the natural dividing line between the Yahgans and Alacaluf; of it Prof. Furlong (j; ef. also r, 174) writes: ‘To round the weather side of the long reach of Brecknock Peninsula, with its frown- ing cliffs and scarcely a landing place, in frail canoes, was something which only the most daring occasionally undertook. While to pass over its barren, unexplored mountain heights for these canoemen was impossible.”’ |

Between Good Success Bay and the eastern end of Beagle Channel there was considerable contact, linguistic borrowing, bartering, and intermarriage with the Onas (Th. Bridges, 6, Mar. 1, 1876, 59; e, 332; 2, cited by Hyades, g, 10; Lovisato, ¢, 720, citing Whaits; Hahn, c, 340; Martial, 185, 192). An equal or perhaps even greater amount of mingling with the Alacaluf occurred in the more or less mixed or neutral zone between Brecknock Peninsula and the western end of Beagle Channel (Th. Bridges, 6, Feb. 2, 1874, 26-27; Oct. 1, 1881, 227; e, 332; k, 234; Lovisato, c, 720, citing Whaits; Spegaz- win, d,b3)s

Dr. Spegazzini (a, 4) was told that there were remains of other tribes or subtribes in Yahgan territory, and he mentions in particular the Pirri of Hermite Island and the Adwipliin of Londonderry Island. Prof. Furlong (6, 129; 7) more recently divides the Yahgans into four family groups: the well-formed natives of the eastern Beagle Channel and vicinity, the big-headed, ugly, powerful Lennox

4 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 62

Islanders, the dwarfish Wollaston Islanders, and the warlike, mur- derous Hoste Islanders. The Parri and Adwiplin were probably two of the small local groups or clans who were known by the names of the localities which they frequented (Th. Bridges, b, Oct. 1, 1884, 224; also quoted in Hyades, 1, 718; cf. also Hyades, 7, 149-150), while the considerable differences noted by Prof. Furlong correspond with what the Rev. Mr. Bridges remarked regarding the noticeable indi- vidual and local differences in the Yahgans’ physical appearance and culture (Th. Bridges, d, 288-289; h, 206).

Dr. Hahn (a, 804), Capt. Martial (129, 208), and Dr. Spegazzini (a, 4; cf. also Barclay, a, 63) wrote as if there were two distinct Yahgan dialects, but Dr. Hyades (p, 339) explicitly states that there is only one Yahgan dialect. The Rev. Mr. Bridges, our best authority on the Yahgan language, seemed rather to share the former view; for, though not stating so explicitly, he wrote (6, Sept. 1, 1880, 196) that the inner coast Yahgans, the Wizsinanala, despised the ocean coast men, the Atisimanala, ‘‘ because of their strange brogue,” etc. Per- haps, too, Dr. Hyades was using the word dialect in a less inclusive sense.

Lexically the Yahgan language is quite distinct from both the Alacalufan and the Onan. Some few words of Yahgan show a resem- blance to the Alacalufan, but in the present state of the evidence the resemblance is not sufficient to establish any solid ground for kinship. The same in less measure is true of the Yahgan and Onan tongues. There has been, moreover, a certain amount of borrowing from both the other tongues by the Yahgans (cf., e. g., Th. Bridges, e, 332; k, 234). Unfortunately, on the grammatical side sufficient Onan material is not available for comparison with the Yahgan, while of Alacalufan grammar we know not a single rule.

Somatologically the Yahgans and Alacaluf are very closely related. The Yahgans differ chiefly from the Alacaluf in being slightly shorter in stature and slightly less dolichocephalic, so Dr. Rudolf Martin concluded (6, 159, 210-211). The physical relations of the Yahgans and Alacaluf to the Onas are treated infra (p. 54).

Culturally the Yahgans and Alacaluf are almost identical so far as our information goes; but both tribes differ in many points from the Onas. For details, see Subject Bibliography, under Culture.

PRESENT CONDITION

Half a century ago the Yahgans may have numbered 3,000 or more, but by 1884 they had dwindled to about 1,000 (Th. Bridges, 6, Oct. 1, 1884, 223; d, 289), by 1886 to about 400 (Th. Bridges, 6, Oct. 1, 1886, 217), while according to what seems to be the most exact recent esti- mate, by the retired English missionary, Mr. John Lawrence (S. Amer. miss. mag., 1913, xLvi1, 145), there are now fewer than 100

COOPER ] BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TRIBES OF TIERRA DEL FUEGO 5

survivors. Of this number 40 to 50 live on Beagle Channel and per- haps as many more beyond Murray Narrows southward as far as but not beyond Wollaston Island. Practically all have largely given up their native culture.

ALACALUF NAM=S

The western canoe-using Fuegians are the Alacaluf. The name is variously spelled. The following are the chief forms given by first- hand investigators: Alacaluf, Alakaluf, or Alacalouf (Th. Bridges, k, 233; Bove, a, 6, c, d; Hyades, g, 12; Martial, 129, 184; Beauvoir, b, 14; the Salesians, as in Cojazzi, 15; Morales, 62); Alaculuf or Ala- culoof (Th. Bridges, b, Apr. 1, 1880, 74; Oct. 1, 1881, 226-227 and usu- ally thereafter; e, 331; h, 203, 210; 7, 313; Lovisato, b, 129; c, 720); Aluciluf (Spegazzini, a, 4); Alukoelif (Spegazzini, ce, 132); Aloocu- loof (Th. Bridges, 6, Feb. 2, 1874, 26); Alookooloop or Alukulup (Skottsberg, a, xxx1r, 592; d, 578); Alokolup (Skottsberg, 6, 240); Alikhoolip (Fitz-Roy, a, 132, 140-141). Still other forms occur in anthropological literature, as Alikuluf or Alikaluf (Chamberlain, a, 89; Brinton, ¢, 331, for former), Alikoolif (Despard, 6, 717), but these do not appear to have any independent value.

It is difficult to decide which is the true pronunciation. Perhaps it varies on the natives’ lips, and probably too, given the great diffi- culty of catching Alacalufan words correctly, investigators have heard it differently. In the present work I have adopted the form Alacaluf, without presuming, of course, to decide against the other forms that rest on good first-hand evidence.

Admiral Fitz-Roy, the first investigator to use the name, desig- nated by it the natives of the islands south of the Strait of Magellan from the western end of Beagle Channel to Cape Pillar (loc. cit.). From the uniformity with which explorers and residents since his time have used the name we may infer that it is the one by which the natives call themselves; although Dr. Skottsberg is the only writer, so far as I have observed, who expressly states so (b, 240, 242-243). Its meaning is not known.

Admiral Fitz-Roy (a, 132) gave the name Huemuls to the canoe- using Indians of Otway and Skyring Waters, because he found them in possession of many skins of that animal. He thought that they were perhaps a branch of Father Falkner’s Yacanas or a mixed Pata- gonian and Fuegian people. This surmise, indorsed to a certain ex- tent by Dr. Brinton (c, 331) and by Dr. Latcham (282-283), is rather contradicted by the linguistic (Lista, e, 41; J. Simpson, b, 88) and cul- tural data from this region, both being Alacalufan. According to the Rey. Mr. Bridges (i, in Hyades, g, 12), the Alacaluf used to go on hunting expeditions to the thick forests of western and southern

6 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [ BULL. 63

Patagonia. Then, too, in Mr. Bridges’ time, the Dawson Islanders, who were as much Onan as Alacalufan in appearance, used to hunt deer as far as the Patagonian coast (Th. Bridges, 6, June 1, 1883, 139; Feb. 1, 1886, 33). This might explain Admiral Fitz-Roy’s theory of the Huemuls’ mixed origin.

Bougainville (2d ed., 1, 276, 290) and many after him called the Canoe Indians of the central part of the Strait Pecherais or Péche- rais (spelled by others Pechera, Pecheri, Pesserai, Pissiri, etc.), from the expression they constantly used. It is not a tribal name, but its meaning is unknown. That it signified ‘‘friends” as Mr. Griewe (234), following Vargas Ponce (a, 349), states, or ‘‘son,” ‘‘child,” ‘‘boy,” ‘‘man,’”’ as Lieut. Cevallos believed (Vargas Ponce, b, 28), is very doubtful, to say the least.

The canoe-using natives of Brunswick Peninsula and King William IV Land were called Guaicaros according to Sefior Lista (d; e, 41), while Sefior Cox spoke (1622, 165) of a supposedly mixed Tehuel- chean and Fuegian people of the north shore of the Strait called Huai- curties. According to the latter writer, they spoke a Tehuelchean dialect, but Sefior Lista’s Guaicaro vocabulary (ibid.) is Alacalufan.

Father Falkner’s Poy-yus or Peyes and Key-yus or Keyes (98-99) are classed by some writers as Alacalufan. Such classification rests on no tangible evidence.

Van Noort (6b, 1st ed., 21; Commelin, 1, 10; de Brosses, 1, 298-299) was told that the natives met, and, incidentally, massacred, on the Penguin Islands, that is St. Martha and St. Magdalen Islands, in 1599, called themselves Enoo, and that other kindred tribes were the Kemenetes of Karay, the Kennekas of Karamay, and the Karaike of Morine. La Guilbaudiere in 1688-1696 divided the Magellanic natives into the Laguediche of the eastern mouth of the Strait of Magellan, the Teste igdiche of Jelouchetez Strait, that is, probably Magdalen Channel, and the Havequediche or Hauequediche and Cadegdiche of the St. Jerome Channel region and beyond; these were the names, he said, by which they called themselves (18-19; cf. also Villefort). Some of these names recur in Brinton (¢, 331-332), Fr. Miller (a, 276), and d’Orbigny (6, Voyage, tv, pt. 1, 187), but it would be unsafe to put reliance in them as distinct tribal names. Perhaps they were local clan or family names.

Of the use of the name Chonos to designate the Alacalufan natives of the West Patagonian Channels more will be said later.

TERRITORY

What territory do the Alacaluf occupy? There is great diver- gence of opinion. It will be well to distinguish between what is cer- tain and agreed upon and what is questioned.

COOPER | BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TRIBES OF TIERRA DEL FUEGO fr

It is agreed that the Alacaluf have in recent times occupied the following territory: Desolation, Ines, and Clarence Islands with the adjacent islands south of the Strait, Dawson Island and the shores of Magdalen and Admiralty Sounds and of Gabriel and Cockburn Channels. In the Dawson Island and Admiralty Sound district, how- ever, there has been considerable mingling, word-borrowing, and inter- marriage between the Alacaluf and the Onas (Th. Bridges, 6, June 1, 1883, 139; Feb. 1, 1886, 33, cf. also Oct. 1, 1881, 226; k, 234; Lovisato, ce, 720, citing Whaits), just as there has been much fusion with the Yahgans in the border zone between Brecknock Peninsula and the western end of Beagle Channel (Th. Bridges, 6, Feb. 2, 1874, 26-27; Oct. 1, 1881, 227; k, 234; Lovisato, c, 720; peeeree cal a, 13).

While Br pokenoek: Peninsula was = Badigeal dividing line between the Yahgans and Alacaluf, it was not an absolute one. The Yahgans went west of this line but rarely, it seems, but the Alacaluf were pretty well established east of it, as the sources just quoted show. It appears, too, that in Admiral Fitz-Roy’s time the Alacaluf extended as far east as the western end of Beagle Channel (Fitz-Roy, a, 132, and the whole account of the loss of and search for the stolen whale- boat in King). The natives met by Capt. Cook in Christmas Sound in 1774 used the characteristic Alacalufan expression pechera (J. Cook, b, 1, 183), although their spear shafts were angular (G. Forster, m, 501), like those of the modern Yahgans.

Accounts similar to those of Francis Fletcher show that Indians using bark canoes formerly occupied the Strait as far east as Elizabeth, Martha, and Magdalen Islands. These natives were in all probability Alacaluf; although it is possible enough that Patagonians may have ventured out at times on these islands. In fact, certain details in some of the early accounts—for instance, van Noort’s: the mention of ostriches, ‘‘la bout de la verge noué d’un fil’’ (6, 21; de Brosses, 1, 298; cf. Ladrillero, 498)—suggest Patagonian rather than Fuegian provenance.

All the above-mentioned territory, except the Elizabeth Island district, lies south of the Strait of Magellan.

Do or did the Alacaluf extend north of the Strait? This is ques- tioned. Canoe-using Indians have occupied from early times, or still occupy sporadically or at certain seasons, decimated and scat- tered though they now are, the shores of Otway and Skyring Waters, of Brunswick Peninsula, Riesco or King William IV Land, and Munoz Gamero Peninsula, the north shore of the Strait from Port Famine and Cape Froward to the Pacific, and the archipelagos with the neighboring fjords and inlets from the Strait to the Gulf of Pefias. Are these people to be classed as Alacaluf, or should they be con- sidered as of a different tribe, non-Alacalufan, Chonoan, or ‘‘ West Patagonian’? ?

64028°—Bull. 63—17

8 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [ BULL, 63

The chief older opinions are those of Admiral Fitz-Roy, Capt. Bove, Mr. Whaits, cited by Dr. Lovisato, and Mr. Thomas Bridges, quoted by Dr. Hyades.

Admiral Fitz-Roy divided the above territory between the Peche- rays of the central part of the Strait of Magellan, the Huemuls of Otway and Skyring Waters, and the Chonos of the territory between the north shore of the western end of the strait and Cape Tres Montes (a, 132, 142, 189). The Chonos were, he surmised, the survivors of the ancient Chonos Archipelago natives who had been driven south of Taitao Peninsula (a, 142). Each of the above three tribes, he states (a, 132), spoke a different language and was distinguished by certain cultural and physical characters. Admiral Fitz-Roy was followed by Dr. Ratzel (6) in calling the West Patagonian Channel natives Chonos. Dr. Coppinger more cautiously calls (54; ul. opp. p- 50) the natives south of the Gulf of Pefias ‘Channel Fuegians.”’

Capt. Bove (6, c, ethnologic map) marks most of this territory as Chonoan, adding, however, a question mark. Dr. Lovisato (c, 720), on the contrary, ascribes it more confidently to the Alacaluf, citing Mr. Whaits, of the English Mission, as his authority.

Dr. Hyades (q, map, and pp. 12-14, quoting Mr. Thomas Bridges; cf. also Martial, 184) divides the territory in question between the Alacaluf of the northern shore of the Strait, including Brunswick Peninsula, King William IV Land, Munoz Gamero Peninsula and the southern shores of Otway and Skyring Waters, and the Chonos of the West Patagonian Channels, including Obstruction Sound and Ultima Speranza Inlet, from the Queen Adelaide Archipelago north.

How much reliance can be put on these divisions? None of the above authorities, except, perhaps, to a very limited extent Mr. Bridges, spoke the Alacalufan tongue, and none except Admiral Fitz- Roy and perhaps Mr. Bridges had personal knowledge of the terri- tory west of Cape Froward and the Brecknock Peninsula region (Bove, a, 790; 6, 133; c, 124; d, Arch. per Vantr., 288; see also itinerary of Bove expedition in Bove, a, b, or c; Hyades, g, 12). Capt. Bove does not give the grounds for his hypothetical division, Dr. Lovisato’s is based on information given him by the Rev. Mr. Whaits of the Ushuaia Mission, while Dr. Hyades quotes the Rev. Mr. Bridges, who gave him ‘‘indications trés précises”’ at Paris in 1886 (Hyades, q,

405).

At the time of the French and Italian explorers’ visits m 1882-83, neither Mr. Bridges nor Mr. Whaits had had any but very limited contact with the Alacaluf, and neither spoke the Alacalufan lan- guage (Hyades, g, 13), although a little later (in 1884) Mr. Bridges and his son Despard were compiling an Alacalufan dictionary (Th. Bridges, t). Alacaluf at times put in an appearance at the Ushuaia Mission (Hyades, g, 13), and individuals of this tribe occasionally

COOPER] BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TRIBES OF TIERRA DEL FUEGO 9

lived among the Yahgans (Hyades, 0, 1344; g, 13, 224, 411-412). Much if not most of Mr. Bridges’ information about the Alacaluf was gathered during ‘‘une longue tournée’”’ (Hyades, g, 12) of a week (Barclay, a, 66) or several weeks (Dabbene, b, 213) in their territory in 1886, but how far west he reached is not stated. Nor is there, so far as the present writer can discover, any record of Mr. Whaits having made extensive journeys into Alacalufan territory.

All the above-mentioned authorities had had much experience among the Yahgans, but it is not clear that their statements, except- ing perhaps Mr. Bridges’, about the natives of the western and northern Magellanic region rest on sufficient personal investigation.

There remains to be discussed Admiral Fitz-Roy’s division. Nei- ther he nor his chief informant, Capt. Low, spoke any of the native languages. Admiral Fitz-Roy gathered his vocabulary by signs mainly, while Capt. Low, though intimately familiar with the “Chonos,” had likewise to use the sign method in communicating with his captive Chono boy Bob (Fitz-Roy, a, 188-189, 129, 182, 193). The ‘“Chono” vocabulary of three words (Fitz-Roy, b, 142) will be touched on later. It throws no light on our question. Moreover, Ad- miral Fitz-Roy was almost certainly mistaken in ascribing (a, 132) distinct languages to his Pecherays, Huemuls, and Alikhoolip, as more recent linguistic evidence shows. Can we then accept as convincing his linguistic distinction between these three tribes and the ‘“‘Chonos,”’ or between the Pecherays and Huemuls on the one hand and the Alikhoolip on the other? Nor finally can the hostility between the natives of the northern and southern shores of the western end of the strait (Fitz-Roy, a, 189) be taken as in itself a proof of tribal or linguistic distinction.

We may now pass to the chief of the more recent authorities. Dr. Dabbene (b, 207-208) and Prof. Chamberlain (a, 89-90) follow Mr. Bridges’ division as cited by Dr. Hyades. Neither adduces any new evidence. Prof. Giglioli (6, 242) holds that the Alacaluf extend from Port Famine to the Gulf of Pefias. The Chilean and Argentinian anthropologists and naval officers as a rule consider the West Pata- gonian Channel natives as Alacalufan (Lehmann-Nitsche, d, 220; C. Martin, d, 365; Morales, 62; Pacheco, a, 53-54; b, 26; Porter, a, 525), while according to Dr. Latcham (279) the Alacaluf formerly reached probably to Chiloé. A similar opinion is also quoted by Dr. Medina (a, 111) from the Rejistro de la marina de la Republica de Chile, 1848, page 44. A recent visitor to the Patagonian Channels reports being told by the pilot of the vessel that the same tongue is spoken from Cape Froward to the Gulf of Pefias (Wilda, mt, 272).

According to the Salesian missionaries (Cojazzi, 15, 123; Beauvoir, b, 14; Whiteside, 19-20), the Alacaluf occupy both shores of the Strait, Ultima Speranza Inlet, and the Queen Adelaide and S. Madre

10 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [ BULL, 63

de Dios Archipelagos. The Salesian fathers are in close touch with the Alacaluf at Dawson Island. They also make journeys into Alacalufan territory, and in 1910 Father Renzi (Cojazzi, 16) made an extensive tour, but I have not at hand exact data of their routes.

Finally, Dr. Skottsberg brought back from his expedition of 1908 some important new linguistic material gathered in the territory in question. From a detailed comparison of this material with the Alacalufan vocabularies published by Admiral Fitz-Roy and Dr. Hyades, he concludes that the Alacaluf are all south of the Strait. All the disputed territory is occupied by a non-Alacalufan people whom he calls ‘‘West Patagonian Canoe Indians.’’ They would speak a language totally different from the Alacalufan (Skottsberg, d, 614, 580, 611; b, 242-243).

So much for the chief views. As appears, the general tendency of recent writers, if we except Dr. Skottsberg, is to allot part or all of the West Patagonian Channel region to the Alacaluf. We may now investigate the available evidence—linguistic, somatological, and cultural.

A. Lineuistic EvipENCE

Nothing has thus far been published on Alacalufan grammar, if we except a brief note of doubtful value by Lieut. Cevallos (Vargas Ponce, b, 27) and the mere general statements by the Rey. Mr. Bridges (Barclay, a, 66) and Dr. Spegazzini (c, 132) that the Alaca- lufan differs structurally from the Yahgan tongue. We are obliged, therefore, to confine our comparative study to the available lexical material.

In compiling the comparative glossary given below, 15 of the 17 extant vocabularies have been utilized, as have also some stray words occurring in various narratives. The present writer unfor- tunately has not had access to Dr. Spegazzini’s (e) short list, nor to Messrs. Thomas and Despard Bridges’ lengthy one (¢), both being still in manuscript. Fuller details regarding the sources used are given in the Author Bibliography. It will be sufficient here briefly to classify and describe the utilized lexical material.

The more important vocabularies used are the following: La Guilbaudiere’s (8-13; Marcel, 6) of 225 words and phrases gathered between 16881 and 1696 in the Port Gallant district; Admiral Fitz- Roy’s (b, 135-140) of 208 words gathered in 1830-31 from the four natives, three of them Alacaluf of the Brecknock Peninsula region, whom he took to England; Dr. Hyades’ (g, 272-277) of the same 208 words gathered in 1882-83 from an Alacaluf woman whom he attended for a long time at Orange Bay in Yahgan territory; Father

10r perhaps 1685 (Cf. Manuel de Odriozola’s Coleccion de documentos literarios del Peru, 1, Lima, 1864, p. 18).

coorrr] BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TRIBES OF TIERRA DEL FUEGO ih

Borgatello’s (Cojazzi, 125-140) of 592 words, phrases, and sentences gathered at Dawson Island from mission Alacaluf who apparently come chiefly from the territory east of Port Gallant and south of the Strait; Dr. Skottsberg’s (d, 606-614; e, 411-413) of 301 words and sentences gathered in 1908 from Emilia, a native woman of Port Gallant, who accompanied the expedition as interpreter, from the natives of Port Gallant and Port Bueno, and in a minimal degree from those of Port Grappler.

The 10 shorter lists used, which contain from a dozen to half a hun- dred words each, are as follows: Dr. Fenton’s (Hyades, g, 278-279) of 46 words gathered from three native women who had been captured in Crooked Reach in 1876 and brought to Punta Arenas; Dr. Hyades’ shorter vocabulary (g, 279) of 13 words gathered from Cyrille, a 9-year-old Alacaluf boy, who in addition verified Dr. Fenton’s list and gave synonyms for three words in the same; Lieuts. J. Simpson and Chaigneau’s (b, 88) of 26 words, taken from one of a group of natives met casually in 1879 at the foot of Mount Dynevor Castle in Skyring Water; Dr. Coppinger’s (122) of 50 words and 5 children’s names gathered in 1880 from an old native at Tilly Bay and subse- quently verified in part among the Port Gallant Indians; Dr. Lucy- Fossarieu’s (175) of 12 words, and Dr. Seitz’s (a, 184) of 18 words, both gathered from the Hagenbeck group of Alacaluf, who were exhibited in Europe in 1880-81 and who apparently came from either Clarence Island (Hyades, p, 342), or more likely Dawson Island (Th. Bridges, 6, June 1, 1883, 139); Dr. Spegazzini’s of 13 plant names (d) and 2 other words (a, 5, 7) gathered in 1882, probably at Ushuaia from Alacalufan transients; Sefior Lista’s (d; e, 41) of 19 words gathered, apparently about 1895, from a ‘‘Guaicaro doctor,’ then living in Patagonia, whose people had come from Brunswick Peninsula and King William IV’s Land; Father Beauvoir’s (a, 7-8) of 41 words, some of which were gathered probably from Alacaluf at Dawson Island Mission; Sefior Iriarte’s (Whiteside, 18-20) of 43 words gathered in 1904 from two native boys taken aboard Capt. Whiteside’s ship at Ultima Speranza.

The stray words mentioned above are the following: 5 in Duclos- Guyot (b, vol. 1, 672, 674, 681); 3 in Cevallos (Vargas Ponce, b, 27- 28); 4 in King (58, 77, 320, 343); 2 in Meriais (885-386); 1 each in Macdouall (110), Topinard (775), and Wyse (534); 3 ‘‘Chono”’ words in Fitz-Roy (b, 142); 10 local names in Sarmiento (203-210; An. hidr., v1, 493-497); 2 tribal names in Villefort (de Brosses, 11, 120); 4 words and some tribal and local names, perhaps, however, of Pata- gonian origin, in van Noort (b, Ist ed., 21; Commelin, 1, 10; de Brosses, 1, 298-299).

12 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [ BULL, 63

GuOSssARY

PREFATORY NOTES

A. The comparative glossary given below contains all and only those words for which there is sufficient material available for pur- poses of comparative study. Where any reasonable ground exists for suspecting the presence of Yahgan, Onan, or Tehuelchean intru- sions in the Alacalufan vocabularies, the respective equivalents in these languages are